Hesychios᾽ Lexicon: An Epigraphical Commentary
Many new archaic and dialectic Greek Inscriptions recently published record words or new types of known words which can be found in entries of Hesychios’ Lexicon. It thus occurred to me, since I have studied for publication several of these inscriptions, that it would be very useful for Classical Studies to collect and study all the words that are found both in inscriptions and in Hesychios’ Lexicon. The proposed study should not include only those entries of words that have already been found in inscriptions; it will also attempt to trace entries that are likely to have drawn upon sources which in their turn had drawn upon or derived from epigraphic sources. I believe that the proposed study will contribute in a fundamental way to the discussion of Hesychios’ ancient sources.
To illustrate my point, I append below a few words known from inscriptions, most of which were recently found, whose interpretation is based on relevant entries of Hesychios’ Lexicon.
1. Ἀθάναι ἀγορίοι· an Αrchaic bronze rim cauldron from Prasidaki (Eleia, late 6th cent. B.C. ΗΟΡΟΣ 13 (1999) 169–171. For the new epithet of Athena cf. Hesychios α 732: ἀγόῤῥιον· ἐκκλησία, 731: ἄγοῤῥις· ἀγορά, ἄθροισις.
2. ἄρδιν· an inscribed dedicatory bronze pin from Phigaleia, late 6th cent. B.C. ΠΑΕ 1997, 117–118. The noun in nominative is ἄρδις cf. Hesychios α 7101: ἄρδις· ἀκίς.
3. ἰδῦοι· treaty between Messenians and Naupactians, c. 426 B.C., ΗΟΡΟΣ 14-16 (2000- 2003) 443. Hesychios ι 243: ἰδυῖοι· μάρτυρες. ἢ οἱ τὰς φονικὰς δίκας κρίνοντες· οἱ δὲ συνίστορες. Cf. also ι 249.
4. ἐκολίαδη· archaic rock-cut inscription of Syros, 6th cent. B.C., IG XII Suppl. 244 = Jeffery, LSAG Syros 49. Hesychios κ 3332: κολιάσαι· ὀρχήσασθαι.
5. Διὶ Ἐπω|πετεῖ· the Attic inscription of δημαρχία ἡ μέζων, 4 th cent. B.C SEG ΧΧΙ 541 col. III.22; cf. also the dedicatory inscription, ΗΟΡΟΣ 17-21 (2003-2009) 99-109. Hesychios ε 5590: Ἐπωπετής· Ζεὺς παρὰ Ἀθηναίοις.
6. ν· horos rock-cut inscription of the first half of the 5 th cent. B.C. found recently at the Nymphai Hill, ΗΟΡΟΣ 22-25 (2010-2013) 199-208. Hesychios κ 3504: Κονεῖδαι· γένος ἰθαγενῶν. κ 3505: Κονείδης· Θησέως παιδαγωγός καὶ μαΐστωρ.
7. λιθάδηξ -ηκος· unpublished rock–cut inscription of Syros, 6th cent. B.C., (to be published by A.P.M.). Hesychios λ 991: λίθακες· χάλικες, πέτραι. λ 992: λίθακι πέτρῃ· τῇ τραχείᾳ. λ 993: λιθάκων· λίθων. λ 994: λίθαξ· ὀλισθηρὰ πέτρα, ἢ τραχεῖα.
8. σᾶτρον, σᾶσθαι· Laconian inscription, early 4th cent. B.C., ΗΟΡΟΣ 10-12 (1992-1998) 261–262; σᾶτρον = θέατρον, σᾶσθαι = θεᾶσθαι cf. Hesychios (edd. Hansen – Cunningham) σ 301: σαωμένη· θεωροῦσα. ε 6162: ἐσάμεθα· ἐθεωροῦμεν, Λάκωνες.
9.Σήραμβος· masculine personal name inscribed on an unpublished tombstone from Melos dated to the end of the 6th or the beginning of the 5th cent. B.C.; the name is also scratched (graffito) on a potsherd (probably of the early 6th cent. B.C.) that was found in the excavations of the archaic sanctuary on the island of Despotikon (near Paros). The name was already attested in Crete, see LGPN I, 405, s.v., Attica, LGPN II, 397, s.v., Aigina, Argolid and Taras of South Italy, LGPN IIΙ.Α, 392, s.v. Hesychios (edd. Hansen – Cunningham) σ 524: σήραμβος· εἶδος κανθάρου.
10. ἐσπάλασ(σ)ε· Euboian graffito, seventh century B.C., ΗΟΡΟΣ 17-21 (2003-2009) 543. Hesychios σ 2843: σφαλάσσειν· τέμνειν, κεντεῖν.
11. ἐν Φαλόσει· The word (toponym) Φάλουσα or Φαλοῦσα is unattested; unpublished inscribed bronze tablet from Thebes, late 6th cent. B.C., (to be published by A.P.M.); cf. Hesychios φ 122: φαλός· λαμπρός. φ 127: φαλύνει· λαμπρύνει.
12. τᾶν φρητιᾶν· accounts of construction works at Epidauros, SEG XV 207, end of the 4th cent. B.C.; cf. Hesychios φ 881: φρητία· στόμα φρέατος
A. P. Matthaiou